Alberto Salazar – Mo Farah’s former athletics coach – has been banned from the sport for four years after being found guilty of doping violations.
Salazar runs the Nike Oregon Project – home to British four-time Olympic champion Farah from 2011 until 2017.
The decision follows a four-year investigation by the US Anti-Doping Agency (Usada) and a two-year court battle behind closed doors.
American Salazar said he is “shocked” by the outcome and will appeal.
“The Oregon Project has never and will never permit doping,” the 61-year-old added. “I will appeal and look forward to this unfair and protracted process reaching the conclusion I know to be true.”
Dr Jeffrey Brown, a Nike-paid endocrinologist who treated many of Salazar’s athletes, has also been banned for four years.
An independent panel found Salazar and Brown possessed and trafficked a banned performance-enhancing substance and administered or attempted to administer a prohibited method to multiple track and field athletes.
It added that Salazar “tampered and/or attempted to tamper with the doping control process”.
The panel also said Salazar and Brown “communicated repeatedly about the athletes of the Nike Oregon Project’s (NOP) performance and medical conditions, exchanging information without any apparent formal authorisation by the athletes at the NOP or distinction between Dr Brown’s role as an athlete’s physician and NOP consultant.
“[Salazar] and Brown shared information with the aim of improving the athletes’ performance via medical intervention, with a particular interest in increasing testosterone levels.”
Usada chief executive Travis Tygart praised athletes for having the “courage to speak out and ultimately expose the truth”.
“While acting in connection with the Nike Oregon Project, Mr Salazar and Dr Brown demonstrated that winning was more important than the health and wellbeing of the athletes they were sworn to protect,” a statement added
K Athletics (UKA), the sport’s UK governing body, conducted its own review into the claims, and gave Farah the green light to continue working with American Salazar.
Farah announced he was leaving Salazar in October 2017, the same year he was knighted, but denied his decision was to do with the doping claims.
The 36-year-old has never failed a drugs test and has always strongly denied breaking any rules.
During his time at the Nike Oregon Project, Farah won six world titles and four Olympic golds in the 5,000m and 10,000m.
The Briton quit running track races in 2017, deciding to concentrate on the marathon, but earlier this year said he might return to the track for the 2020 Olympics in Tokyo.
Salazar added: “Throughout this six-year investigation my athletes and I have endured unjust, unethical and highly damaging treatment from Usada.
“This is demonstrated by the misleading statement released by Travis Tygart stating that we put winning ahead of athlete safety. This is completely false and contrary to the findings of the arbitrators, who even wrote about the care I took in complying with the world anti-doping code.
“I have always ensured the World Anti-Doping Agency code is strictly followed.”
Nike said the decision had “nothing to do with administering banned substances to any Oregon Project athlete”.
“As the panel noted, they were struck by the amount of care Alberto took to ensure he was complying with the World Anti-Doping code,” it said.
“We support Alberto in his decision to appeal and wish him the full measure of due process that the rules require. Nike does not condone the use of banned substances in any manner.”